primo de rivera
University of Wisconsin Pres, 2014, p.218, Falange. Velarde Fuertes, Juan. Every member of the Falange had to obey unquestioningly. The monarch may have erred; the popular vote may err because neither truth nor goodness derives from an act or assertion of the will. Miguel Primo de Rivera.  A founder of a Fascist party, he critically fascistised afterwards, as he progressively radicalised in an anti-conservative direction. Vol. Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera was a Spanish lawyer, nobleman, politician and founder of the Spanish fascist movement, the Falange Espanola.  This name was created during the period after de Rivera's execution but before this was officially confirmed to the Nationalist public at large by its leadership on 18th July 1938. 1.- La quiebra de la monarquía parlamentaria. The postwar cult of personality had two ubiquitous icons. Primo de Rivera contempla una concepción espiritual de la Historia y del Hombre dentro de una cosmovisión católica, opuesta a la interpretación materialista del marxismo, pretendiendo fusionar tradición y revolución. , According to Ãlvarez Chillida, Primo de Rivera's written works did not feature a marked antisemitism when compared to other Falangist leaders.[n. Our place is out in the clear air, beneath a moonlit sky, cradling a rifle, and the stars overhead. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2011, p.204, ThomÃ s, Joan Maria. The Republicans held him in captivity until they executed him. Durante este periodo se ilegalizaron todos los partidos políticos y todos los sindicatos y ateneos obreros, a excepción del PSOE , el único partido de tradición … Goodness and truth are perennial tributaries of reason, and to ascertain whether one is in the right it is not enough to ask the king—whose dictate seemed always just to his supporters—nor enough to canvass the people—whose decision is always right according to the disciples of Rousseau.  By 1936 he endorsed a conservative and reactionary military coup seeking to destroy the Republic that led to a civil war that he tried to stop later.. His uncle, Fernando, was Captain General in Madrid and the soon-to-be first marquis of Estella.Fernando later participated in the plot to restore the constitutional monarchy in 1875, ending the … I am a candidate, yes, but I take part in these elections without faith or respect. During the speech he made his noted remark on the recourse to fists and guns when needed, And in closing, that if what we want must in some circumstance be attained through the use of violence, that we demur not before the prospect of violence. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! What must be done rather is to verify whether our actions and our thoughts are in agreement at every step with a permanent aspiration. A figure with a trajectory not free from contradictions, he assumed the role of messianic leader charged with the task of saving Spain while he was unable to track support during his whole political life. Either way the death of the founder of Falange rid the general of a formidable rival. NOW 50% OFF! In 1981, the Madrid City Council moved to reinstate the original name of its grand avenue, the Gran VÃa, which Franco had renamed "Avenida JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera" in 1939. , Primo de Rivera went on to study law at the University of Madrid between 1917 and 1923. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Help support true facts by becoming a member. Primo de Rivera fully supported Franco's military rebellion in July of 1936 against the republican government, and after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the Falange became the dominant political movement of the Nationalists. Reburial of JosÃ©-Antonio at the Valley of the Fallen in 1959, ConfederaciÃ³n EspaÃ±ola de Derechas AutÃ³nomas, Falange EspaÃ±ola Tradicionalista y de las JONS, Falange EspaÃ±ola de las JONS (AutÃ©ntica), JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera y SÃ¡enz de Heredia, Vida castrense de JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera en Barcelona, "La influencia de Ortega y Gasset en JosÃ© Antonio", Semblanza de JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera, Discurso de JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera exponiendo los puntos fundamentales de Falange espaÃ±ola, pronunciado en el Teatro de la Comedia de Madrid, el dÃa 29 de octubre de 1933, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQ31rIUTDBo, Interrogatorio de JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera y SaÃ©nz de Heredia,en el proceso celebrado en Alicante, el 16 de Noviembre de 1936, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJ-_tYNh3Fc, JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera y Falange EspaÃ±ola, JosÃ© Antonio visto por RamÃ³n Serrano SuÃ±er, El papel de la Falange en la represiÃ³n franquista, El Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara retirÃ³ esta madrugada las estatuas de Franco y JosÃ© Antonio que habÃa en la ciudad, "La eclosiÃ³n del antisemitismo espaÃ±ol: de la II RepÃºblica al Holocausto", Ediciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, "El marquesado de Estella, el condado de San Fernando de la UniÃ³n y el ducado de Primo de Rivera", "Los Benedit. Berghahn Books, 2019, p.136, 143, ThomÃ s, Joan Maria. On October 29, 1933, Primo de Rivera launched the Falange EspaÃ±ola ("Spanish Phalanx"), a nationalist party, inspired in part with some ideas, such as the necessity of authority, hierarchical order of society, and grassroots populism, that were being expounded in Italy in the Fascist movement. Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja (Jerez de la Frontera, 8 de janeiro de 1870 — Paris, 16 de março de 1930) foi um militar e ditador espanhol, fundador da organização União Patriótica, inspiradora da União Nacional portuguesa. Fascismo en EspaÃ±a (1933-1936)", "La dialÃ©ctica de los puÃ±os y de las pistolas. , It has been noted that at some point he benignly put his hopes on politicians far from his own Fascist stances such as republican Manuel AzaÃ±a (in this case for a very brief time) or socialist Indalecio Prieto as potential candidates to alleviate his self-imposed burden for "saving" the country. Primo de Rivera, Jos\u00e9 Antonio - Obras Completas.pdf - \u00cdNDICE PR\u00d3LOGO por Agust\u00edn del R\u00cdO CISNEROS \u00cdNDICES CRONOL\u00d3GICO DE OBRAS EP\u00cdSTOLAS Primo de Rivera (1923–30) and the Second Republic (1931–36) Primo de Rivera. 3. when the names of the fallen were read out. It is a way of knowing everything—history, the State, the achievement of the proletarianization of public life, a new way of … It is said by some that the Republic offered the Nationalists a prisoner exchange involving Primo de Rivera and a son of the Republic's head of government Francisco Largo Caballero and that Franco turned down the offer. A inicios de 1924 (la dictadura de Primo de rivera apenas llevaba en marcha cuatro meses) se destapó un turbio asunto de tráfico de drogas (cocaína y morfina, básicamente) y la extorsión que estaba padeciendo un importante empresario teatral de Madrid, quien había caído en las garras de la tal Caoba, provechando esta para chantajearlo con el fin de … Primo de rivera definition, Spanish general and political leader: dictator of Spain 1923–29. ... ''Fascism is a European inquietude. JosÃ© Antonio SuÃ¡rez-ArgudÃn y GarcÃa Barroso, 7. Your leaders are always right.. , Stanley Payne argues that Rivera's view that violence was acceptable if done for a just cause was paralleled by that of the Spanish Left, who held similar views on the use of violence; unlike the Italian fascists, the Falange never developed a sophisticated theory for their doctrine of violence. Thus until this date many Falangists had lived in hope that de Rivera would still return (commonly saying "when JosÃ© Antonio comes back") and began referring to him as "The Absent One", a reference to the Falange's tradition of calling "present!" Perhaps tellingly, it was well known that the two men disliked each other. The inscription of "JosÃ© Antonio Â¡Presente!" They were told: The honour and task of Falange must be gauged by those who carry the burden of leadership on their shoulders. He joined the army and took part in the colonial wars in Morocco, Cuba and the Philippines. His mother died when he was only 5 so he was brought up by a paternal aunt and his home-based education by private teachers instilled in him … (00:00 - 6:55) 2.- Desarrollo político y cambios económicos. Spanish general and dictator. He was privately taught at home, and learned English and French. Since the liberal state was a servant of [Rousseau] it became not just the trustee of a nation's destiny but also the spectator of electoral contests. Miguel Primo de Rivera was born into a landowning military family of Jerez de la Frontera.His father was a retired colonel. In the general election of February 16, 1936, Falange won only 0.7% of the vote; but the wave of instability which greeted the victory of the Popular Front—a left-wing coalition of anarchists, communists, socialists, liberal republicans like the radicals, and others—caused an influx of new members, and the minuscule party grew to more than 40,000 members by July. Sa famille, principalement composée de militaires, appartenait à laristocratie andalouse3. In 1884 he followed his father and uncle into the military, enrolling in the General Military … InÃ©s Orbaneja y PÃ©rez de Grandallana, 12. Imprisoned before the start of the Spanish Civil War, he was accused of conspiracy and military rebellion against the Government of the Second Spanish Republic and was sentenced to death and executed during the first months of the war. However, after Juan CuÃ©llar's death, he seemed to overcome his reluctance and thus intermittent killings on both sides would continue.. , In 1935 Primo de Rivera collaborated in editing the lyrics of the Falangist anthem, "Cara al Sol" (Face to the Sun).. But there is no option left except fists and guns when someone offends the precepts of justice or the fatherland. , Primo de Rivera became a registered lawyer in 1925, and opened an office on a side street of Madrid very near the confluence of three principal avenues. Primo de Rivera is a Spanish family prominent in politics of the 19th and 20th centuries: Fernando Primo de Rivera (1831–1921), Spanish politician and soldier Miguel Primo de Rivera (1870–1930), nephew of Fernando, dictator of … found: Fernández Jiménez, María Antonia. Primary Sources Pilar Primo de Rivera. Manuel Antonio SÃ¡enz de Heredia y Sicilia, 13. Who has said that when our feelings are insulted, rather than react like men, we are called upon to reply amiably? That is a murky atmosphere, spent, like a tavern's after a night of dissipation. José Antonio Primo de Rivera's quotes in this page.  He was elected to the Parliament as a representative of CÃ¡diz. Join Facebook to connect with Miguel Primo de Rivera and others you may know.  His political thought fascistised as he progressively radicalised in an anti-conservative direction. Early years. The church had contained the pantheon of Spanish monarchs but Primo de Rivera was buried directly in front of the altar. On March 14, 1936, he was arrested in Madrid and charged with illegal possession of firearms (at a time that Spain was awash in privately held weapons held by all political factions). Pilar Primo de Rivera, the daughter of Miguel Primo de Rivera and the brother of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, was born on 4th November 1907.Pilar was only eighteen months old when her mother died and she was brought up by two aunts. In other words liberal governments did not even believe in their mission, that theirs was a respectable duty, but rather they believed that anyone who disagreed with them and decided to attack the state, whether with good or ill intentions, had the same right as they did to defend it.. Do not forget that one of the rules of our code of ethics is to have faith in the leaders. However, as late as March 2005, the Guadalajara City Council removed a memorial to the founder of Falange under cover of darkness. The Duke is the first Spanish Ambassador to London since early in 1947. Payne argues that because his father had ruled as a dictator with relatively minimal violence during the quieter 1920s, Rivera naively assumed he could impose a new authoritarian system with relatively limited violence, but he would eventually find himself caught in a spiral of killing that he could not control. View the profiles of people named Miguel Primo de Rivera. What alone mattered to the liberal state was that a certain number of gentlemen be sitting at the polling station, that the voting start at eight o'clock and end at four, that the ballot boxes not get smashed—when being smashed is the noblest aspiration of all ballot boxes—and then to respect the outcome of the voting, as if the outcome was a matter of complete indifference to it. Miguel Primo de Rivera was born into a wealthy family in Jerez, Spain, in 1870.  The antisemitic positions within FE de las JONS were mainly led by OnÃ©simo Redondo, with Ledesma and Primo de Rivera largely indifferent to the issue; however Falangists attacked the Jewish-owned SEPU department stores in the spring of 1935; In the view of Gonzalo Ãlvarez Chillida, both JosÃ© Antonio and Ledesma probably thought that such antisemitic raids could enhance mobilization within the purportedly threatened small-business sector.  The sentence was carried out on November 20 by local authorities in Alicante. The three career judges who participated in the trial, along with the popular tribunal, asked for the death sentence be commuted to life imprisonment but this was rejected by the majority of government ministers (the two ministers from Izquierda Republicana voted against the death sentence). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Miguel-Primo-de-Rivera. Notwithstanding the apparent veneration by the Francoist State, it remains true that the Missing One's demise had removed a dangerous opponent: Primo de Rivera had been Marquess, a doctor of civil law, a political thinker; Franco owned no comparable pedigree, no comparable education and no personal ideology. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ãngela SuÃ¡rez-ArgudÃn y RamÃrez de Arellano, 15. , Primo de Rivera put much faith on corporativism, one of the few early Falangist tenets framed in positive terms, adopted from Italian Fascism. , A relatively successful lawyer not involved nor expected to be involved in politics before 1930, the impetuous JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera decided to do so after the death of his father in his Parisian self-exile in 1930; this was for him the best way to defend the memory of his father, whose work at government had often been derided. Duke of Primo de Rivera and his wife. 17, 1991) In life, he held the nobiliary title of 3rd Marquess of Estella, Grandee of Spain.  The second was the rallying cry, "JosÃ© Antonio—Â¡Presente!," a figurative reply to an imaginary roll call invoking his ghostly attendance or immanence. PRIMO DE RIVERA, MIGUEL (1870–1930) BIBLIOGRAPHY.  After one of the two meetings they had, Franco dismissed JosÃ© Antonio as "a playboy pinturero" (a foppish playboy).  He spent his summer holidays at the country estate of an uncle, where he practiced horse riding and hunting. Duke of Primo de Rivera and his wife on their at London airport. Our station is not there. 'This book provides a detailed and informative historical evaluation of the various attempts of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship to politically indoctrinate the masses in nationalist values. , He espoused an elitist understanding of politics, influenced by the ideas of Ortega y Gasset. Miguel Primo de Rivera est né le 8 janvier 1870 à Jerez de la Frontera (Espagne). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. José Antonio Primo de Rivera (José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia; Madrid, 1903 - Alicante, 1936) Político fascista español, fundador de la Falange.  In 1959, they were exhumed and re-interred in the gargantuan basilica of the Valley of the Fallen, located in the Guadarrama mountain range, not far from El Escorial..  Nine weeks later he was transferred to the prison in Alicante. Others contend that it was the Republican government who rejected the deal of the Nationalists and that General Franco approved several failed commando raids on the Alicante prison to try to rescue JosÃ© Antonio. Queipo de Llano had written a defamatory letter against an uncle of JosÃ© Antonio and against the Dictator himself. "JosÃ© Antonio y la economÃa" Grafite ediciones. Casilda SÃ¡enz de Heredia y SuÃ¡rez de ArgudÃn, 14.  When at university, he did not attend lectures until the second year of his undergraduate studies. [better source needed], The upper-class JosÃ© Antonio abandoned the tie and suit and took on the new blue-shirt Falange uniform (despite later mocking JAP militants because of this, the Falangists were originally dressed in suit and tie); the uniform, adopted in October 1935, was deliberately chosen as reference to Italian Fascism. José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia was born in Madrid on April 24th 1903 and was the eldest son of Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was Spanish dictator from 1923 to 1930.  Nevertheless, the party lost autonomy and was made wholly subservient to the will of General Franco in 1937 when he had Primo de Rivera's temporary replacement, Manuel Hedilla Larrey, thrown in jail, tried and sentenced to death (although his sentence was commuted), decreed the merging of the Falange EspaÃ±ola de las JONS with the Carlist traditionalists through the Unification Decree, and became the national chief of the new party, FET y de las JONS. He was the keynote speaker and his first address was a criticism of liberal democracy. It is yours now that it is finished âThose we love die for us only when we dieââ.. He never married. His execution, when he was just 33 years … Era detentor do título nobiliárquico de Marquês de Estella e de Ajdir. Miguel Primo de Rivera fue ascendido a teniente general en 1919 y pronto ocupó la Capitanía General de Madrid, desde donde defendió la tesis de abandono de las colonias norteafricanas, motivo por el que fue cesado. Miguel Primo de Rivera was born in the Andalusian town of Jerez de la Frontera to an aristocratic family with landholding and military antecedents. He founded Falange EspaÃ±ola in October 1933, shortly before the 1933 general election, in which he was elected member of the Republican Cortes, running as candidate within a wider right-wing platform. For who has said, when they say, "Every available means except violence," that the supreme hierarchy of moral values resides in kindness? José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia, 1st Duke of Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquess of Estella (24 April 1903 – 20 November 1936), often referred to simply as José Antonio, was a Spanish politician who founded the fascist Falange Española ("Spanish Phalanx"), later Falange Española de las JONS. In his first parliamentary intervention he answered Gil-Robles—the founder of CEDA—who had just spoken out against all totalitarian forms of government for arrogating to themselves the attributes of God and crushing the personality of the individual: We believe that the state does not have to justify its behaviour at every turn, just as no individual or social class does, in so far as it holds to a guiding principle all the time. Hijo primogénito del dictador Miguel Primo de Rivera , decidió entrar en política para defender la memoria de su padre, generalmente denostada en los años del hundimiento de … , Regarding political violence, he early alluded to what he famously termed as the "dialectics of fists and guns", already stating during the Falange foundation event at the Teatro de la Comedia, that in order to fulfill the desired cultural and historical regeneration of Spain, "if this has to be achieved through violence, we shall not be stopped by violence". He served with the Ninth Dragoons of St. James cavalry regiment, stationed at Barcelona. [unreliable source? ], He was detained briefly in 1932 for collaboration in General JosÃ© Sanjurjo's attempted coup..  On November 18 he was found guilty by a people's tribunal and sentenced to death by firing squad. could be found in many churches all across Spain. While the Falangist leadership knew the truth, they chose to keep it a secret for fear of the impact it would have on morale, though rumours of his death would continue to circulate for the period. , Willing to offer an alternative to the most basic fundamentals behind liberal democracy, he also non-accidentally addressed some words of scorn to "that terrible man who was called Juan Jacobo Rousseau [sic]" during the foundational meeting of the Falange. JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera: The Reality and Myth of a Spanish Fascist Leader. Rivera's closing words made explicit his Romantic nationalism: In a poetic sweep we will raise this fervent devotion to Spain; we will make sacrifices, we will renounce the easy life and we will triumph, triumph that—you know this well—we shall not obtain in the upcoming elections. The foundational convention was held in the Teatro de la Comedia of Madrid. Una aproximaciÃ³n a la formaciÃ³n de la idea de estado en el fascismo espaÃ±ol (1931-1945)", "La reafirmaciÃ³n de la masculinidad en la cruzada franquista", Newspaper clippings about JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera, Miguel Primo de Rivera y SÃ¡enz de Heredia, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement, Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund fÃ¼r LeibesÃ¼bungen, Union of Young Fascists â Vanguard (boys), Union of Young Fascists â Vanguard (girls), National Socialist German Students' League, Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=JosÃ©_Antonio_Primo_de_Rivera&oldid=992015323, Members of the Congress of Deputies (Spain), People killed by the Second Spanish Republic, Spanish people of the Spanish Civil War (National faction), Members of the Congress of Deputies of the Second Spanish Republic, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with style issues from November 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from March 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2019, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 5. The first, a funereal slab placed on the external wall of many churches and cathedrals which bore the crowning inscription, CaÃdos por Dios y por EspaÃ±a ("Fallen for God and for Spain"), followed by a list of local Nationalists killed during the war; Primo de Rivera's name headed every list. Primo de Rivera, soldado y gobernante by Eduardo Aunós ( Book ) Justiz im Verhör : Kontrolle, Karriere und Kultur während der Diktatur von Primo de Rivera (1923-1930) by Friso Ross ( Book ) El general Primo de Rivera by … He was court-martialed for punching a superior officer, Brigadier General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano. Hymn of Spanish Falange and the JONS. Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte is a Spanish aristocrat, military officer and since 1923 Prime Minister and de facto dictator of the Kingdom Of Spain. Son père était un colonel à la retraite, sa mère sappelait Fernandina de Busqueros (1845-1892). Son oncle, Fernando, était capitaine à Madrid et allait devenir le premier … The eldest son of General Miguel Primo de Rivera, who ruled Spain as dictator from 1923 to 1930, Primo de Rivera worked as lawyer before entering politics, an enterprise he initially engaged into vowing to defend his deceased father's memory. The reign of Francisco Franco nurtured a convenient cult of personality around the dead figure of Primo de Rivera whom Falangists dubbed "El Ausente" (The Missing One). , He ran for office under the banner of the National Monarchist Union and failed to get elected. At the end of the war in 1939, the mortal remains of Primo de Rivera were carried on the shoulders of Falangist relay teams from Alicante to Madrid (a three-hundred kilometre journey) and provisionally interred at El Escorial. In these elections vote the lesser evil. During the course of the war the marginal party gained ascendancy partly as a result of its prominent role in the brutal repression that took place behind Nationalist lines. He helped to organize the student union there, FederaciÃ³n Universitaria Escolar, which opposed the higher-education policies of his father.  When he founded the Falange, Antonio was more reluctant to use violence than other leading members of the party; he did not seem to expect violence from the political Left to be directed against the party. In 1948, he was posthumously bestowed the title of Duke of Primo de Rivera, which was subsequently passed to his brother Miguel. 3. JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera y SÃ¡enz de Heredia, 1st Duke of Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquess of Estella (24 April 1903 â 20 November 1936), often referred to simply as JosÃ© Antonio, was a Spanish politician who founded the fascist Falange EspaÃ±ola ("Spanish Phalanx"), later Falange EspaÃ±ola de las JONS. But your Spain will not be born out of them, nor does our frame for action reside there. , Elizabeth Bibesco's last novel, The Romantic, published in 1940, starts with a dedication to Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, whom she had known during her stay in Madrid where her husband, Prince Antoine Bibesco, who was a diplomat from Romania in Spain between 1927 to 1931: âTo Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera.  He shared with other rightists the belief that violence was legitimate against a Republic that he perceived as influenced by communists, Jews and Freemasons.  The founder of Falange was anointed a martyr of the "crusade against Marxism."  From his father he inherited the title of Marquess of Estella. See more. Primo de Rivera había presidido el Directorio Militar (después Consejo de Ministros de la dictadura) desde el día del golpe de estado hasta el 28 de enero de 1930. Dialogue as a first step of communication is well and good. The image of JosÃ© Antonio was revered during the war by the Nationalist faction and, after the establishment of Francoist Spain, he was regarded as a martyr, his figure being a tool of the Francoist propaganda apparatus. With the arrival of democratic rule, the legacy of Primo de Rivera and the cult of personality created by the Spanish state started to wane circumspectly. This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 01:09. Primo de Rivera conducted his own defence. , In 1931, he was invested "Perpetual Dean of the Illustrious College of Lawyers of Madrid". On October 3 he was charged with conspiracy against the Republic and military insurrection, both capital offences, even though he had been imprisoned long before the insurrection of July 18. Miguel Primo de Rivera (Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, 1870 - París, 1930) Militar y dictador español. JosÃ© Antonio Primo de Rivera: The Reality and Myth of a Spanish Fascist Leader. After the First World War Primo de Rivera held several important military posts including the captain-generalship of Valencia, … Infanzones de AragÃ³n y sus descendientes, TÃtulos del Reino, Grandes de EspaÃ±a", "Un asunto de fe. He was a candidate in the general election of November 19 for the umbrella organization "UniÃ³n Agraria y Ciudadana," part of the broad conservative coalition ConfederaciÃ³n EspaÃ±ola de Derechas AutÃ³nomas (CEDA). MarÃa CesÃ¡rea Tejada y Santa MarÃa, 3. Miguel Primo de Rivera, general and statesman who, as dictator of Spain from September 1923 to January 1930, founded an authoritarian and nationalistic regime that attempted to unify the nation around the motto “Country, Religion, Monarchy.” Though it enjoyed success in certain areas, his We are not going to squabble with the establishment over the unsavory left-overs of a soiled banquet. 1], Ãlvarez Chillida just found two antisemitic, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Payne, Stanley G. Spain: A unique history. What makes the state like God is the belief that the will of the state, embodied by absolute monarchs in the past and now by the popular vote, is always right.
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